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Practical tips for questionnaire design

2020-03-31

When faced with measuring social benefits, the easiest way is to use questionnaire surveys. We only need to pay attention to the following principles, and we don’t have to write too casually and worry that the data asked are not persuasive.

 

First of all, you should first think about the results you expect. For example, in which aspects will the recipients change, do you feel happy? Is it improved knowledge or skills? Is there a change in attitude or behavior? What kind of behavior is it? Is it too polite to nod? Or lack of rude performance? Talk to others too much? Is to concentrate and so on. As long as you are clear about what you want to measure, you can reduce the length of the question to ask some data that will not be used in the future.

 

Second, each type of change, that is, mentality, knowledge, skills, or behavior, should be asked by its own questions, ensuring that a small number of questions cover each type of unique change. The questionnaire produced in this way is simpler and the audience has a higher chance to answer the entire questionnaire accurately.

 

Third, as long as the scoring ratio of the problem design is the simplest one to five (or one to seven), the best method is to use the most common and most popular method in textbooks, so that the result is the easiest to analyze and make Stakeholders should understand, don't give up easy and difficult, so that you will have to spend more time in the future to explain clearly. Generally speaking, using singular scores can make people answer middle or neutral, and in the analysis, let us know how to turn the neutral masses into more identity, which brings important information for improving the benefits of the project.

 

Fourth, try to use a uniform scoring ratio. The first is to facilitate analysis and reduce administrative costs, and second, to reduce the audience’s errors in answering. But if the ratio used in the past questionnaire design is not the commonly used one to five, we can still formulate it into different ratios. This is just a problem of mathematical calculations, and it can be solved only by teaching people. Don't worry, past data will not be wasted.

 

Fifth, the length of the questionnaire should not exceed two pages, making the audience too strenuous, and asking the right questions is the most important thing.

 

Sixth, do it yourself after completing the questionnaire to see if the words are clear and straightforward, and then boldly estimate what score the audience will get after answering. This mentality of estimation is to cultivate one's own confidence in the effect of project implementation, urge oneself to have better control, so that the long-term benefits of the project can be further improved.

 

Of course, questionnaire design can be a specialized subject, but this does not mean that everyone must first take a professional course to make a good questionnaire. In many cases, the simplest, most direct, and easy-to-understand questionnaire is a good questionnaire, and the results obtained are often the most reliable. Therefore, we should not care whether it is a perfect questionnaire, but should pay attention to whether the audience is easy to answer. In addition, we will do more repeatedly and do it over the new year to let ourselves know whether the project is getting better and better, so that it can better reflect our original intention of doing social welfare projects and doing benefit measurement.

 

Ted Kwan

Chief Mentor and Chartered Financial Analyst

 

 

#Questionnaire Design#Social BenefitMeasurement#Data#社福

 

Social Benefit Measurement@艺术Project

2020-04-25

For many years, Hong Kong has used economic development as the main theme, and art as a spiritual aspect is difficult to become mainstream in Hong Kong people's lives, let alone artistic creativity and appreciation. Although art is "so far", it is "so close". A few years ago, a digital version of the “Surfing the River on the Ching Ming Festival” was exhibited in the exhibition hall of a government department. At that time, there was a scene of empty streets. It can be said that art is not completely isolated from the lives of ordinary citizens. What exactly is art? This article is limited in space and fails to discuss the essence of art in depth; however, generally speaking, art is a kind of emotional communication. It can be said that the author expresses a certain emotion in his artistic creation, and the viewer is appreciating the work. Time can also receive the same emotions, and art resonates among them; there is a saying that art has no fixed function, and it is given different meanings in different time and space. Although the above is only a preliminary discussion, it may be enough to explain why the average person feels that the effects of art seem to be unavailable.

 

The problem now is that, with the funding support of government departments or the sponsorship of private enterprises, many art institutions in Hong Kong have organized projects for the general public; the concrete presentation of the effects of the projects is beneficial to all sectors of society. Understand the specific meaning of the art project, and objectively prove that the funding or sponsorship of the relevant department for the project is properly used.

 

The social benefit measurement helps to present the seemingly or not-to-be-obtained effects of general art projects as clearly visible effects.

Last year, the Asia Society Hong Kong Center held the "Root of Vientiane: Zhou Luyun's Painting Art Exhibition", which showcased the changes in personal emotions through abstract paintings combining Zen and Taoism, and through Ms. Zhou's reputation and the "down-to-earth" mental health issues. It is hoped that it can inspire the public to integrate artistic creation into daily life. Relevant project teams participated in the "Jockey Club Plenty Social Benefit Measurement Training Program", and based on the Kirkpatrick Model's first three levels to set benefit indicators and design questionnaires for benefit research:

 

1. At the affective level (the first level), one of the indicators is the degree to which participants enjoy art activities. The survey results show that 80% of respondents said they enjoy activities, which means that they have a strong motivation to engage in art-related activities in their daily lives. activity;

2. As for the cognitive level (the second level), one of the effectiveness indicators is whether the participants feel the pressure is relieved after completing the activity. The survey results show that 87% of the interviewees strongly agree with the decompression effect of art activities, and the remaining 13% Agree with this, none of the interviewees expressed neutrality or disagreement;

3. At the level of behavior transformation (the third level), one of the indicators is whether participants will continue to participate in other art activities (including creation at home) in order to achieve the purpose of integrating art into daily activities. The survey results show all (100%) Interviewees indicated that they will continue to participate in art activities.

 

The above social benefit measurement methods simply and directly present the effectiveness of the project, and the extra effort required is just to make a simple questionnaire, distribute, collect and analyze the questionnaire.

 

Samuel Lee

tutor

 

#Society-Efficiency Measurement#Art#Three-tier transformation

Three-tiered description of the transition

2020-05-22

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Most of the social welfare projects are "people-oriented", meaning that they hope to help others "improve" through activities, contacts, consultations, etc.

 

That being the case, the most direct way to effectively demonstrate the effectiveness of the project, or the easiest way to make people understand it, is to state the changes of the recipients.

 

It was not the social welfare sector, but the business world that first proposed to describe people with three levels. In 1954, at the time, Donald Krikpatrick of the University of Wisconsin studied the effectiveness of its training under the prerequisite of company training. What kind of results can he get back with the cost of training? He believes that three dimensions should be used to describe the performance of employees. The first level is direct response, the second is what knowledge, skills and attitudes have been learned, and the third is the conversion of what has been learned into behavior. The author borrowed this concept and used it in social welfare projects, and found the effect was good. It is not only easy to understand, but also enables oneself to have a deeper understanding of the project.

 

1) Subjective direct reaction or feeling

 

For a good project, its participants must at least like the overall satisfaction of the project, and secondly, be willing to introduce it to others. These two are the most basic. For different situations,

 

The recipient’s other subjective feelings should also be measured, such as happiness, feeling hesitant, trusting in others, feeling supportive, etc. These are all subjective statements that can be clearly measured with questions or interviews.

 

2) Knowledge, skills and attitude

 

Many projects are aimed at increasing the abilities of the recipients, such as vocational training, learning to deal with interpersonal relationships, conflicts, mastery of language, or attitudes towards minorities, perceptions of family members, and so on. These are the changes on the second level.

 

Three) Behavior change

 

Many social problems are related to behavior, such as smoking, self-harm, healthy eating, being polite, using less plastic bags, and so on. If the behavior of the beneficiaries of the social welfare guess is changed, the effect will be more obvious. Therefore, a good metric that can describe changes in behavior is the easiest way for stakeholders to understand, understand and continue to support this social welfare project.

 

The author’s observation is that most social welfare projects in Hong Kong have formal questionnaires, but unfortunately they are a bit lengthy but not scratchy. If you pay more attention to the question design, make sure that the question summarizes the three-level description. It's a large space, but it can be clear to the stakeholders during the project roadshow. This is the most ideal!

 

Ted Kwan

Chief Mentor and Chartered Financial Analyst

 

#三层变#subjective feelings#Knowledge Skills and Attitudes#Behave Change#Social BenefitMeasure#社福#DonaldKrikpartrick #DKmodel

 

What does sustainability do to me?

2020-06-29

04_SDG.jpg

In the past half century, the international community has been discussing sustainable development uninterruptedly, all because the current lifestyle of all human beings cannot be sustained. As a supranational institution, the United Nations has proposed a way of life that strikes a balance between economic development, social development, and environmental protection, so that people living in the present and future generations can lead a quality life. After years of international multilateral negotiations and policy deliberations, despite the ups and downs in the process, the United Nations finally reached a consensus on the global development direction in 2015 --- 17 Sustainable Development Goals (Sustainable Development Goals). A detailed description of these 17 goals can be found on the official website of the United Nations, so I won’t repeat them here. This article aims to explore the significance of these 17 goals for general non-governmental organizations in this city.

 

First of all, both international and local business communities have begun to attach importance to these 17 goals; a survey report published by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2019 showed that 72% of the 1,141 interviewed companies from 31 countries and different industries included in their report. When it comes to the Sustainable Development Goals, 25% of companies incorporate the Sustainable Development Goals into their business strategies, and 21% of the company’s CEOs mentioned the Sustainable Development Goals in their published articles or speeches. 14% of the companies have published specific indicators for achieving the relevant sustainable development goals; as for Hong Kong, according to a survey by Alava Consulting, only 6% of the listed companies in Hong Kong used environmental, social and governance reports in 2017 The Sustainable Development Goals are used to illustrate the social responsibilities they have fulfilled. In 2018, listed companies that did the same thing accounted for 18% of all parent companies, which was three times that of the previous year, reflecting the Sustainable Development Goals as a measure and description of the international and local business community. The tool of its social responsibility has become an irreversible trend.

 

 

On the other hand, in order to fulfill their social responsibilities more comprehensively, many commercial enterprises will choose to fund non-governmental organization projects. If non-governmental organizations use relevant sustainable development goals as a tool to measure and describe their social benefits, in the long run, they can establish a common language with the business community, which will help non-governmental organizations to collect donations from individual companies.

 

 

However, some people in the social welfare community have informally shared their views on the Sustainable Development Goals. They feel that the Sustainable Development Goals are not relevant to their ministry, because they think these goals focus on the international dimension. What they do is to respond to the needs of the local society. If you have the opportunity to look closely at the technical details of the Sustainable Development Goals, you will find that these perceptions do not match the facts. In fact, the United Nations has established these goals with intentions. It is to encourage all government departments, business enterprises, and civil society around the world to work locally to promote sustainable development. It can be said that institutions and people all over the world are the targets. Take the youth trial work program of a local social welfare organization as an example. It serves a group of out-of-school and unemployed young people. The program provides them with trial work experience, helps them strengthen their work skills and understand their employment orientation; in fact, the project The plan coincides with the 8th Sustainable Development Goal (Decent Work and Economic Growth), all because helping the youth who have lost their jobs help promote more inclusive economic development. As for how to determine technically that the plan responds to the eighth sustainable development goal? Let us continue the discussion in the next article.

 

Samuel Lee

tutor

 

#SDG # Sustainable Development#SustainableDevelopmentGoals #社福

 

The fourth layer-see benefits from the project sponsor

2020-07-22

05_第四層-從項目贊助人看效益.jpg

Those who are engaged in social welfare have their professional backgrounds and have a deep understanding of the problems faced by the project beneficiaries. It is reasonable and reasonable to devote their energy and time to the beneficiaries’ benefits. They should expect the beneficiaries to be in their hearts and minds There are positive changes in knowledge, skills or attitudes, and even behaviors. This is the measurement of the three levels of change advocated by Fengsheng.

 

Today’s project sponsors, in addition to hoping to provide financial support, their donations are also increasing, and they are also moving towards a professional path. We should be happy to see that besides the government, there are more family funds, companies, community funds, Specific public funds to participate in building a better society. The trend of specialization will inevitably bring greater accountability requirements, and colleagues in the fund must also explain their donated projects. Fullshare proposes that sponsors can use four methods to measure the cost-effectiveness of the project.

 

Social return on investment

 

The most ideal of course is to compare the social investment return of the project. Taking the existing cases in the world, there can be a return of 3-4 times, that is, the social benefits brought by a one-yuan subsidy. If quantified by money, it can be There is a return of three or four times or more. The key is to have an open and acceptable method to quantify social benefits. Some people in foreign countries try to promote it but it is still unsatisfactory. Because the rationale is more technical, the author will write another article. Explore the methods and difficulties in it.

 

If the return cannot be calculated, we still have a way to make reasonable judgments. First, we can calculate the subsidy required by each beneficiary in the project, that is, the unit cost.

 

Apple to apple

 

Starting from the unit cost, you can first find out the relevant benchmark (Benchmark), as long as there is a comparison of the unit costs of similar social welfare projects, you can get a little bit of one or two. One student spends 800 yuan for the other. Just look at the detailed items in the budget to find out whether it is reasonable. The author understands that each item has different focuses, such as different regions, high school and junior high school students, and the holding format is also acceptable. It is different, but this comparison gives sponsors the opportunity to learn more, find out the effective parts to keep, and improve the low-efficiency parts to make their sponsorship more effective in the long run.

 

Apple vs. Aomori Apple

 

The second is to find similar items (Comparable) to compare. Similar means similar. For example, for a project to train young people’s leadership skills, we can refer to the cost of young people taking time management courses, or use adults Comparing the cost of leadership training, the similarity is that the same is spent on young people, or the same is related to leadership training.

 

Apple to orange

 

The third is to use similar concepts (Reference) to compare. For example, it is also to train the leadership skills of middle school students. There is no similar project in the market. We can refer to the unit cost of adult management courses or the cost of communication skills training for college students. Suppose a college student needs 3,000 yuan to learn communication, and the leadership training for middle school students costs 6,000 yuan. This still gives the sponsor a room to ask if 6,000 yuan is reasonable? The two to be compared do not have the same elements. , But this can still be measured, just like in the family, we all know that it is better to buy a tablet or to go on a 4-day and 3-night trip is more effective.

 

in conclusion

 

There are no two exactly the same things in the world, but they do not necessarily hinder comparison. You only need to have the right amount of creativity to find similar things. The social welfare business is people-oriented, and people are indeed complex and multi-faceted, so we should stimulate creativity, let stakeholders understand the effectiveness and benefits of the project, and strive for more support to create a better society.

 

The above is to propose a hierarchical framework to provide guidelines for friends who are engaged in social impact measurement (Social Impact Measurement) for reference. There is no limit to learning. I hope that more friends in the social welfare circle will try to use it and give back their opinions, and let the author know this Whether the level is "landed".

 

Ted Kwan

Chief Mentor and Chartered Financial Analyst

 

#Social Investment Return#Social BenefitMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement

 

Practical research in social benefit evaluation

2020-08-20

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The social benefit measurement method promoted by the Association is an Evidence-based Research method. We use this method to measure the effectiveness of the project, so we know the size of the various effects of the project so that we can report to different stakeholders (including institutions). Supervisors, project sponsors and members of the public, etc.) demonstrate the results of the project. Many years ago, Canada had a very successful inmate education program (Simon Fraser Prison Education Programme). Some audiences accepted that the researcher (Duguid, 2000) did not share too much of the course content during the interview, but shared a lot of the inner transformation triggered by the plan. One of the inmates confirmed his interest and future development that he was actively involved in In the direction, another person in custody said that the plan provides a function of education, allowing the person to correct past wrong behaviors in a subtle process; the above-mentioned audience sharing is part of the qualitative data obtained from evidence-based research.

 

After completing the evidence-based research, we may need to further investigate the reasons for these effects. The reason is that if we have the opportunity to implement the same or similar projects again, we must ensure that these winning factors reappear before we can be sure that the project can be manufactured again. Expected results. The work of finding the cause is called “Practice Research”; the paradox is that even if we are very familiar with the operation of the project, sometimes the reason for the project’s effectiveness is usually not obvious, because it is in the process of receiving intervention services. , There may be subtle interactions between audiences, and even between audiences and the scene they are in. Taking the above-mentioned inmate education plan as an example, the researcher further analyzed various data based on evidence-based research and found that there are several aspects of the generation mechanism that led to the success of the plan: 1) The plan avoids "renewal", "counseling", "correction", etc. Labeled words as the main theme; 2) try to give the prisoners their autonomy as much as possible (for example, give them the right to freely participate and withdraw; for example, the planned classes are concentrated in one building, where the participants monitor themselves and participate separately When they mature, they can be called course instructors), and guide them to be the subject of self-control. When their sense of autonomy is restored, they are responsible for their own development, so they are provided with appropriate guidance so that they can establish a foundation for long-term development. ; 3) Their autonomy is improved to help establish a civilized atmosphere; 4) Finally, to show their recognition of them, Simon Fraser University will award them a degree or diploma. Undoubtedly, these four findings are very valuable reference knowledge for organizations that will implement related projects in the future.

 

Due to the word limit, this article can only give a brief introduction to practical research. But in a nutshell, practical research helps us to generate new knowledge about project design, implementation, and effectiveness, and this knowledge becomes the basis for us to implement the next related project. Will practical research be the path towards social benefit assessment 2.0? This issue is worthy of our continued discussion.

 

 

DUGUID, S. (2000).  Can Prisons Work?: The Prisoner as Object and Subject in Modern Corrections. Toronto; Buffalo; London: University of Toronto Press. Retrieved August 1, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442671676

 

Pawson, R. (2013).  The science of evaluation: A realist manifesto. London,: SAGE Publications Ltd doi: 10.4135/9781473913820

Samuel Lee

tutor

#SocialImpactMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement#PracticeResearch#PracticeResearch

 

The importance of speaking clearly

2020-09-29

07_說得清楚之重要性.jpg

To show the effectiveness of social welfare projects, Fengsheng proposes three perspectives to measure the changes in the audience, namely, the first is the change in the mind and subjective feelings, the second is the mastery of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and the third is the change in the behavior of the recipients. This article thinks Pointing out that at a practical level, what stakeholders most expect to see is behavioral changes. For example, to promote healthy diets for the elderly, education can be used to enable audiences to acquire knowledge, and they can also change their prejudice against healthy foods, etc. But for the audience’s family or other stakeholders, one of the most powerful indicators is what the audience has eaten every day.

 

The author understands that the goals and priorities of each social welfare project will be different. For example, if the project is only engaged in public education, then the transfer of knowledge is the focus, not behavior change. For the person to be evaluated, the most important thing for the author is to be able to explain clearly. If the focus of the project is education, the author will compare the unit cost of holding education. For example, the training of workplace learning will cost about 1,000 yuan per person. One day's cost.

 

For another example, the project is mainly to encourage daily exercise. The author will treat the knowledge part of the teaching as a general knowledge promotion. The unit cost may be only a few hundred yuan to make one person understand, but it must be constant every week. The unit cost of doing sports is much higher. As long as people spend hundreds of yuan an hour to hire a personal trainer, the monthly expenditure can be two to three thousand yuan.

 

Therefore, the author encourages social welfare colleagues to clarify the specific benefits, whether it is for behavior or knowledge changes, and the cost can vary by several times or more. In addition, what percentage of the project’s audience is showing deeper behavior changes. For example, one hundred of a thousand participants will follow up their behavior in depth, and the cost will be higher. If you split it out, you can make the support Participants more rationalize the amount of their donations.

 

The three-tier indicators (feelings, knowledge skills, behaviors) first let the social welfare staff know the priorities and key points of the project, and then quantify the results. It also allows the sponsor to better understand where the money is going, such as the church’s fundraising, such as the goal It is clear that it is to fund the school start and book expenses of children from poor families, and the faithful often support it; and if it is said that the church’s finances are tight, and many ministries require money and hope to get support from the faithful, then, because The goal is not clear, but the fundraising results are often unsatisfactory. In fact, it is the same in the investment market. If the company can clearly explain where the capital needs to be invested, how the effect will be explained, investors will be more at ease, but if it is to raise funds for general operating purposes, it is naturally daunting, and the same good thing if A bit more expensive, people still believe that the risk is controllable and are willing to support it. On the contrary, uncertainty will make investors wary.

 

The author understands that for social welfare staff, it is more hard work to measure effectiveness, but being able to speak clearly will make people feel at ease in donating, and in the long run it will be more rational to make more rational decisions about organization development and manpower deployment.

Ted Kwan

Chief Mentor and Chartered Financial Analyst

#Social BenefitMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement

 

Social benefit return on investment

2020-12-14

S ocial

R eturn

O n

I nvestment

As the name suggests, Social Return On Investment (SROI) is a method of using money to interpret the benefits produced by social projects. Paradoxically, the positive changes in many societies are inherently elusive and difficult to directly translate into money. For example, if someone says that after a certain disadvantaged group undergoes some kind of intervention, the group's sense of self-esteem increases by 100,000 yuan, it is hard to believe that such a statement will have the slightest convincing power. Is SROI useless? The answer is no. If the project sponsor (government department, commercial organization or family fund) needs to understand the nature of the proposed project in a relatively short period of time, SROI as a simple number allows them to have at least a basic grasp of the benefits of the project; suppose the project sponsor receives For the two proposed project plans, the social benefits of Project A will bring two yuan of social benefits for each dollar of investment, and the social benefits of Project B will bring four yuan of social benefits for each dollar of investment. If both The nature of the projects is similar, so sponsors will naturally prefer the “big reward” project B. Therefore, if we can make good use of SROI, we can increase the chance of sponsors funding support projects. The next question is, how do we use SROI to interpret the elusive positive changes? The answer is that we can try our best to choose some details that can be directly measured by money as performance indicators.

 

In fact, there is an organization that assists mentally rehabilitated people. In the past three years, it has organized a live library, inviting a group of mentally rehabilitated people to show up and share their experiences of overcoming various difficulties to the public. They use the live library’s sharing activities and The society re-engages, so as to maintain a good mental state, avoid the recurrence of the disease, and save the medical cost caused by the recurrence. The medical cost is originally calculated in currency, so there is no sense of violation of the medical expenditure to be included in the SROI, and it is calculated. SROI naturally has a high reference value.

 

Samuel Lee

tutor

#SocialImpactMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement#SocialEfficiencyInvestmentReturn#SROI #hksim #马会丰盛Social efficiency measurement program#JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

 
 

Monetization of social benefits

2021-01-31

要將社會效益金錢化,現行比較完善的做法是先為一些具體的社會效益,如我有恆常參與義工,我對社區有認同感等等,制定一個年度金額。例如對社區有認同感在英國的價值為每年3,753 英鎊。

 

這個金額是首先去了解對社區有認同感比起沒有認同感的人,在其幸福感的相差是多少? 假設是有認同感的人會高出百分之三的幸福感分數,然後,查一查在幸福感分數中,需要多少收入之提升同樣能夠達致百分之三分的升幅,假設是年收入多出五千英鎊。我們就可以以此收入之提升作為有社區認同感的社會價值,這做法的好處是其一致性,所有的金額都是用人均年收入為基礎去計算,而任何社會效益都歸納為對幸福感之影響。

 

由不同高低的幸福感分數轉化成金額其實不難,只要在普查時詢問受訪者的收入狀況及以統一的幸福感問卷,數量夠大即可計數出基準。在另一邊廂,我們亦需要有足夠多受眾回答社區認同感的問題的同時,亦要做幸福感的問卷。

 

這樣的三組數據,1) 人均年收入,2) 幸福感分數及3) 社區認同感分數以統計學方式結合,就可計出其金額。有了此數,其應用就比較簡單。

 

例如有一項目是創造社區認同,可以在項目完結時訪問受眾的社區認同感之分數是多少,例如是4分(在0-10分之中),那麼其社會價值便是 0.4 x 3,753 = 1,501英鎊,再加一條去問受眾認為有多少的認同感是由此項目所帶來的,以0-10分數為本,例如其回答之平均數是4,即只有百分之四十的認同是來自此項目,所以其社會效益是 0.4 x 1,501 = 600 英鎊,再乘以項目之受惠人數,就可計出社會效益之金額。

 

以此思路,我們可以先定義十數種常見的社會效益,如義工服務、我離開抑鬱、我有固定工作、我有好的人際關係、我有持久的興趣等等,把這些常見的社會效益化成年度金額,就可供社福機構仍參照及計算之用。

 

知易行難,要先訂出十數種常見的社會效益其實亦不容易,最好由一間對不同社會效益都有所涉獵的機構去開始會較容易,另外,如果由一間有公信力的公營或慈善機構去啟動則更好,一來不用擔心私隱會被拿去作商業用途,另外公營或慈善機構亦讓受訪者較有信心去回答問題,令數據更準確。

 

關志康 (Ted Kwan)

首席導師及特許財經分析師

#社會效益量度 #SocialImpactMeasurement #社會效益金錢化 #MonetizationofSoicalImpact #hksim #賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度計劃 #JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

Relevance change theory (Theory of Change)

2021-02-23

10_適切的改變理論(Theory of Change)

在社會效益量度的範疇中,改變理論旨在向相關持份者解釋為何無介入方法或項目能夠解決某社會問題或達致某社會目標。適切的改變理論能夠為項目提供堅實的論述,使項目獲得相關持份者的支持。但是,如何制定適切的改變理論,則是一大學問,畢竟世上並沒有一套必然正確的方法供設計改變理論之用。

 

西方社會講求由下而上的參與性,因此項目團隊會走到受影響的社區人士當中集思廣益,並把不同點子有機地揉合成具認受性的改變理論。

華人社會可能較順服權威,因此項目的持份者較傾向接受學術理論作為改變理論。說到這裏,我們並不是主張西方的一套比華人社會的一套為佳,而是把兩套結合。一方面,我們借助學術理論增加項目的認受性;另一方面,我們作為項目人員必須透徹地了解各持份者的期望,以致我們能夠引用合適的學術理論。

以本地的大學社會創業教育為例,我們常常強調學生透過做有趣的實事來學習創業,於是引用D. Kolb的Experiential Learning Theory作為改變理論。但現在的年青人對由上而下的項目是相當抗拒,要成功誘發年青人積極參與創業活動,項目人員必須擺出一種和參與者平起平坐的姿態以建立良好的關係,從而促進相互了解和溝通。所以,大學社會創業教育的改變理論,既要具備Experiential Learning Theory的元素,也要具備關係對等的元素。這種制定改變理論的方法,在認受性和回應相關社會問題兩方面都能兼顧。

 

李浩 (Samuel Lee)

導師

#社會效益量度 #SocialImpactMeasurement #改變理論 #Theoryofchange #hksim #賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度計劃 #JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

 

Blind spots of project sponsors

2021-03-30

筆者有時接獲朋友求助,說有些金錢希望捐助給有需要的人,但要求是錢想全部都放在真的有需要的人身上,而不是慈善機構身上。表面來看是希望錢用得其所,但我的意見卻認為這是不可行的任務。

 

筆者在網購時,看到一件在大陸生產的貨品只售數十元,但運費卻多要數十元,即變相是以雙倍價錢來購買這件貨品,覺得十分不值,感覺不滿。但這樣的想法是正確嗎?

 

當我日常在超市購物時,能夠在街角即買即用,其售價不單是生產成本,而是包括了運費,上架的人工,租一個在你附近的舖面租金,才可以這麼便利,即買即享用。

 

我的朋友希望錢只送到有需要的人手上,但怎樣去找出真正有需要的人呢? 誰人去找他們出來呢? 如果有需要的人就在你眼前出現,為什麼不把錢直接送給他而要找中間人去將錢送出呢? 

 

在香港,不少很有需要的人都隱藏在社會的角落,不容易去辨識,就算找到,他們的需要是否跟我們想捐助的內容配合呢? 例如他們要的是一個工作機會但我們卻想捐飯盒。要配對得好,中介人不單是左來右送,亦要有判斷能力,或再做合適轉介。商業社會如要將商品送到合適的人手上,可以籠統稱為公司的經常性開支,可佔去百分之十五至二十五的價格,如套入社福場景,每一百元的捐助,可能要花上二十元去找出合適的受助者,只有八十元才能直送手上。中間所要的尋找費用、宣傳、核實都要不少人力物力。所以,筆者認為一社福項目,當中牽涉機構的統籌、匯報、良好管治、招聘,隨時可以用上百分之十五的整體項目費用。有時容許在預算中列清行政費用,反而令到真正放在項目的相關支出一目了然,減低了數字中的水份,令項目的成效更可作出比較。

 

關志康 (Ted Kwan)

首席導師及特許財經分析師

#社會效益量度 #SocialImpactMeasurement #hksim #賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度計劃 #JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

 

Promoting System Transformation—Take Hong Kong University's Sustainable Rural Project as an example 
2021-06-04

推動系統轉化_以香港大學永續鄉郊計劃為例.jpeg

項目的本質是一次性,而社會項目也不例外。很多社會項目屬於新嘗試,一些不確定性因素或會影響項目的成效。因此,如果項目團隊能夠在指定期間達到指定目標,已經可以被視為「交足功課」。但是,某些項目團隊可能把項目視為推動系統轉化(例如政策倡議)的契機,期望項目的成果能夠說服政策制定者改變相關政策。毫無疑問,這是一件十分困難的事情,但並非絕對不可行的。

 

Nesta 是英國一家推動創新的機構。根據其數年前所發表的研究報告,任何組織若對相關領域有豐富知識,但缺乏制度上的權力,便須採取和他人協作的策略(Collaborative Strategies) 以增加影響力,使當權者感受到轉化系統的迫切性。和他人協作策略主要有四大面向,當中包括建立聯盟(coalitions)、建立溝通機制(communications)、建立可信性和建立人才庫以掌握突然臨到的機會(contingencies)。

 

香港大學永續鄉郊計劃於2013年開始經營茘枝窩村活化計劃,在上述四方面均不違餘力:

 

1)在建立聯盟方面,透過舉辦不同活動(如領袖訓練計劃)和設計不同誘因(如「三斗種」社區培育計劃)凝聚來自不同背景的人士,當中包括村民、來自商界和社福界的義工、本身並非村民的社區農夫、藝術工作者等,真正做到多贏。

 

2)至於建立溝通機制方面,香港大學幾乎每年舉辦一次和鄕郊活化有關的學術會議,供各方對鄕郊發展和保育感興趣的學者和社區人士進行深層次交流。

 

3)在可信度方面,荔枝窩村在2016年獲著名旅遊書籍評為十大亞洲旅遊景點第五位。於2017年,茘枝窩村活化計劃被聯合國開發計劃署記錄在可持續發展方案數據庫中。

 

4)港大就鄕郊活化成立永續社區學院,舉辦不同類型的課程,為長遠鄉郊可持續發展建立人才庫。

 

上述第一、二及三點所提及的事情發生後,現屆特首於2017年施政報告中提出以荔枝窩村模式為藍本,活化其他鄕郊地區。雖然我們不能歸納出上述第一至三點和當時政府頒布鄕郊活化政策有直接關係,但即使以最保守態度分析,可肯定這三點和政策轉變起碼有間接關係。上述第四點發生在政策轉變之後,但對於支持其他鄕郊地區的活化方面絕對有正面作用。

 

最後,究竟以上的討論和社會效益評估有什麼關係呢?在我們提倡的評估框架中,有利條件(conditions)是一項重要的組成部份。建立有利條件有助達成項目的成果,甚至有助系統轉化。在營運社會項目的同時,建立有利於系統轉化的條件並把其作為社會效益的一部分展示出來,那怕最後未必能夠成功做到系統轉化,但也可向不同持分者展現我們長遠對相關社會議題的抱負。

 

李浩 (Samuel Lee)

導師

#社會效益量度 #SocialImpactMeasurement #hksim #賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度計劃 #JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

 
 

Four short stories about how to use ``practical research'' thinking to talk to funders and personnel management under the epidemic (1)
2021-06-22

農曆年前跟賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度培訓計劃的Samuel相聚,談到實踐研究(practice research)思維,如何協助機構在COVID-19下與資助者溝通和維持同事在新常態服務轉型下的士氣,也分享了幾個小故事。故事是自己和同事的經歷,跟「社會影響」拉不上甚麼大關係,但事後竟得對方邀請,在3月中做了一場線上分享會,希望藉我們四個故事拋磚引玉,刺激大家在新常態下共謀進路。
 

活動後,有參加者問能否分享當日的微軟簡報給他們參考。因投影片內容精簡,故反建議給主辦單位,讓我花時間文字整理當日分享,一來令事後回顧內容上稍有細節;二來事後的文字整理也助我反思當日的分享及做必要的補充,因此也促成四篇短文。首兩篇故事會談及「實踐研究」思維如何幫我們與資助者溝通,後兩個故事則講到「實踐研究」思維如何幫助機構維持同事士氣。
 

為了方便大家明白故事內容,我在首篇短文先交待一下所有故事的背景。

在COVID-19疫情爆發初期,無論機構或資助者都以2003年「沙士」為參照,認為疫情會在夏天過去,服務變陣是應急為主,能轉網上的就轉網上,或是「以不變應萬變」。可是新冠疫情的規模及持續性遠超大家預期,於是資助者開始提出以下問題﹕

  1. 「應急式」轉為網上的服務,是否真的有效及值得繼續?

  2. 「以不變應萬變」的服務,是否能對應疫情下的社會狀況與需要?

而第一個故事,就是與資助者討論是否可以把服務轉為網上及長遠轉為網上服務相關。我起的故事標題為「Research-informed practice」,主角是我們兩個專為小學生而設的含抗毒元素健康教育服務項目。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

故事第一個出場的主角,是服務特殊教育需要學生及家長的「星級成長路II」中「家庭樂Fun Fun」親子活動。這個一個多小時的活動,令參與的孩子和父母可以利用不同材料去藝術創作,過程中他們可輕鬆分享自己的創作想法、感受和回憶親子間的樂事,藉此促進親子溝通和相互了解。這活動一直廣受學校歡迎,疫情下也跟我們預約。
 

不過縱然疫情下學校停課或轉為網上授課,資助者一直堅持我們只能安排實體活動。他們認為改以網上平台安排活動會減低活動趣味性和互動,也擔心參加者對視象參與的專注力有限,或「扮」參與但事實上並無參與。但學校站在疫情風險控制考慮,實難以讓我們安排實體活動,有學校因而取消預約或改期。
 

事實上,10多間已預約我們合作的學校中,有學校提出能否改以網上進行活動,計劃也在去年年底也進入最後半年倒數,但我們與資助者之間一直膠著。最終我們借鑑實踐研究中的「行動研究」(action research)做法,與資助者達成共識試行數場網上活動,並利用實體活動的評估工具進行成效評估。若具成效,資助者會讓參與學校選擇網上版或實體版,若成效不彰就維持只做實體活動的安排。
 

故事進展到這裡,我們之間要解決的課題包括﹕

  1. 要試多少場次才足夠和合理地反映網上活動成效?及

  2. 如何合理斷定網上版跟實體活動一樣具成效?
     

最終我們跟資助者協議「三盤兩勝」制。若只得一場,成敗可能是運氣使然:若兩場的話,一場有效一場欠成效也難於有定案;若試行太多場也超過參考的需要。與此同時,因為我們假設網上「家庭樂Fun Fun」跟實體活動一樣會幫到參與的孩子和家長,所以以實體活動的「七成參加者有正面改變」作各項評估指標的成效參照(KPI)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

最終三場網上版的評估結果,都反映超過七成參加者有正面改變,資助者逐放心讓我們全面變陣。

其實實踐研究也有助我們在服務變陣中學習。以本故事另一個主角「解毒至叻星」高小抗毒健康教育服務為例,資助者早已容許我們以實體及網上安排入校服務,於是我們累積了實體及網上服務的評估數據。同事在今年上學期完結後,按兩種服務形式劃分去分析評估成效,結果發現實體與網上服務均能對應疫情下學校及學生的抗毒健康教育需要。而有趣的是,在抗毒知識及態度方面,我們發現有更高比例的網上服務參加者錄得正面改變。這進一步刺激我們發展網上健康教育的動力。
 

篇幅所限,暫且就此打住。在下一篇「天氣不似如期」中,我再跟大家分享我們的表達藝術治療小組服務在疫情下服務成效不似如期下,我們跟資助者溝通的另一個小故事。


黃子瑋 (Keith)

轉載自 HKGoodPost: https://www.hkgoodpost.com/2021/03/22/%e5%9b%9b%e5%80%8b%e5%9c%a8%e7%96%ab%e6%83%85%e4%b8%8b%e5%a6%82%e4%bd%95%e4%bb%a5%e3%80%8c%e5%af%a6%e8%b8%90%e7%a0%94%e7%a9%b6%e3%80%8d%e6%80%9d%e7%b6%ad%e8%88%87%e8%b3%87%e5%8a%a9%e8%80%85%e5%b0%8d/?fbclid=IwAR3Zb5CJqyahGyuJ3ZnvZt-bWL1Os0Pulos6R0C4yIQ5T42IocAXU2GlPOo

#社會效益量度 #SocialImpactMeasurement #hksim #賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度計劃 #JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme

 

Four short stories about how to use ``practical research'' thinking to talk to funders and personnel management during the epidemic (2)
2021-07-01

WhatsApp-Image-2021-03-29-at-12.55.57.jpeg

上一篇短文中,筆者以文字整理了賽馬會豐盛社會效益量度培訓計劃線上分享會的第一個小故事,提到如何以「行動研究」的進路游說資助者服務變陣,甚至了解變陣服務在成效方面跟以往沿用的安排是否有更突出之處。

今次這篇短文,則分享我們社區藥物教育輔導會在戒毒復康服務引入表達藝術治療小組的小故事,簡介一下「實踐研究」思維如何協助我們跟資助者在「天氣不似如期」下的溝通和學習。
 

戒毒復康服務的目標之一,是協助復康者維持復康和防止復吸,但個人、家庭、及社區層面中的風險或保護因素卻左右到復康者的堅持。有見及此,我們機構嘗試引入表達藝術治療小組去協助在院舍或社區復康單位的服務使用者,協助他們藉表達藝術創作察覺及找到自己內在對應外在環境的能力,提高他們的自尊感及自我效能感。資助者相信這些改變是會有助他們減低復吸機會,也在已首次兩年計劃完結後,於2019年再次撥款支持第二期服務。

在社會衝突及疫情夾擊下,我們具社工資歷的表達藝術治療師餅sir (Terrence)仍成功完成兩個治療小組,但小組在提升組員的自尊感及自我效能感方面的效果卻不似如期,資助者也致電來關心。

筆者跟餅Sir因應上述情況的討論方向,主要是借「實踐研究」思維去思考社會發生的大事有否構成影響服務在推出後才出現的新外在因素(new externalities),及該些因素對服務成效帶來的潛在影響。

這狀況也刺激了筆者對服務成效評估的反思。一直以來,我留意到量性的成效評估設計都是希望以最簡單的假設去進行,所以服務成效主要是跟有否得到服務和接受服務的密度有關,而少有假設「外在因素」對成效的影響。即使有,那些外在因素大都集中於當事人是否曾經或正接受其他機構或單位提供的類此服務支援。很多時可能因為缺乏相關文獻參考、或受評估工具長度限制、甚至是貪方便,評估者會假設服務期間的「外在因素」是維持不變 (ceteris paribus 或holding other factors constant)。

WhatsApp-Image-2021-03-29-at-12.55.55-768x1024.jpeg

One of the reminders of the epidemic is to review with my colleagues the possible impact of "external factors" on services. Taking this experience as an example, we explored the approach through qualitative narratives to understand and summarize the lives of the service providers and their own situation under the epidemic.

 

The thinking of "practical research" also reminds us that "external factors" are divided into Deadweight and Attribution. The former will reduce the expected results of the service or even nullify the results, while the latter will promote the results without your input. For example, even if adolescent children You will naturally grow taller without participating in additional exercise classes, so the exploration will consider the possibility of two major factors.

 

Narrative inquiry also requires us to summarize and analyze data from a preset perspective, otherwise it will be no different from ordinary casual talk. Our cake Sir defined "life in the epidemic" as "economic participation activities", "family life" and "social life" to understand the situation of the team members and came up with the following findings:

 

  1. The epidemic hits the labor market. If the parties encounter employment challenges during the post-test, the two performance indicators will inevitably fall in the post-test. However, the process has also led us to discover that if the parties are still working as usual under the epidemic, they will have and maintain a high sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy during the pre-test and post-test, so that the positive changes brought about by the group's intervention are not obvious;

  2. Family life pressure and conflicts with family members will affect the person’s sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy;

  3. In terms of social life, group members who value friends and experience themselves in the interaction with friends, because they can’t see friends or reduce their social interactions under restricted gatherings, have hit their sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy.

     

The above findings give us the direction to understand with funders why the effectiveness of the art therapy group in this issue is not as good as the previous service, and it also stimulates us to think about how to supplement the related service change theory (theory of change) used in the past.

 

Some people may think that the approach of qualitative narrative inquiry is not enough to be quantitative, methodological and scientific. I suggest that those friends can check the references on Google, and they will find that the approach can actually be scientific and can also provide extremely useful reference and practical knowledge. This is one of the articles that I find interesting to refer to. Even medical service-related research topics will use narrative exploration.

 

Another thing worth remembering in this story is that at the moment when the face-to-face treatment team was suspended due to the epidemic, Cake Sir seized the time to understand the foreign expression art therapy society’s suggestions to its members, and also began to collect some relevant treatment applications in addiction and addiction. Read the literature research on prevention of relapse with the author. Later, he invited Dr. Lan Jianwen from the Department of Social Work of Hong Kong Baptist University and his team to help further enrich our original theory of group therapy changes.

 

 

Through the dialogue and communication between the pie sir and the team, and the larger-scale literature review with the other party, we finally constructed 7 possible effects of art therapy in preventing relapse of drug rehabilitation patients, such as "the inner ability to control one's own impulse" , And these expected results are measured by existing scales with a certain degree of reliability.

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In the sharing session, Ted hosted a special question about how the cooperation with the college’s researchers went smoothly. In the cooperation between Cake Sir and HKBU, I have the following observations:

 

  1. Institutions must be frank and let the college understand their ideas and needs. Take our cooperation this time as an example. We want to enrich the original theory of change, and we also want to more realistically define the effects of the service, such as the generation of "inner balance" and "inner energy." We admit that there are only relatively vague ideas, but these ideas will give researchers further directions;

  2. Provide resources to the college. This time we are giving consultant fees to the university team to support the team members in their literature review, summarization, and sorting work. Labor has a price, so is thinking about work;

  3. Cake Sir is happy to share his work observations with colleagues in the college, and dares to feed back the first draft submitted by the college from the perspective of practical services. It is a new theory of change co-produced by the organization and the college.

  4. The cooperation between social workers and researchers is actually one of the important topics of "practical research." Professor Lars Uggerhøj, one of the author's favorite promoters of "practical research", has a very interesting article suggesting possible approaches. If you are interested, you can learn more about it in Lars' article.

 

Huang Ziwei (Keith)
 

Reprinted from HKGoodPost: https://www.hkgoodpost.com/2021/03/29/%e5%9b%9b%e5%80%8b%e5%9c%a8%e7%96%ab%e6%83%85 %e4%b8%8b%e5%a6%82%e4%bd%95%e4%bb%a5%e3%80%8c%e5%af%a6%e8%b8%90%e7%a0%94%e7 %a9%b6%e3%80%8d%e6%80%9d%e7%b6%ad%e8%88%87%e8%b3%87%e5%8a%a9%e8%80%85%e5%b0 %8d-2/

 

#SocialImpactMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement

 

How much is our service worth?
2021-08-02

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In terms of calculating the social return on investment (SROI), if a human-oriented service project does not involve granting aid to the recipients or assisting them in achieving cost savings, then the project team may consider using Contingent Valuation as the SROI Calculation basis. The conditional evaluation method is derived from economics. The specific method is to invite the relevant person to directly use the amount he/she thinks is appropriate to express his/her opinion on something that does not involve market transactions, for example, if the planning department of a local government wants to Knowing the value of a certain natural landscape to a residential community, the department can interview people living in the community and invite them to express the monetized value of the landscape in their minds.

 

In the same way, the project team can invite the recipients to express the monetization value of the project in their minds through questionnaires after the project is completed, but the investigator must emphasize that the purpose of the survey is not to charge the recipients, and must guide them to use the project The transformation of affection, cognition, behavior, etc. is used as the basis of the evaluation project.

Ideally, every interviewee can tell the value of monetization. However, in actual operation, the interviewee is often clueless; in this case, if the investigator can provide reference data, it may be easier for the interviewee to answer the monetization value. Recently, this Council has measured social benefits for a non-governmental organization that promotes primary medical services. However, there are no highly similar projects on the market for reference. Therefore, we only provide the fees charged by a nursing home with higher service quality as the interview. Of course, the investigator can further explain the similarities and differences between primary care and nursing homes to the interviewees, so that the interviewees can more accurately estimate the monetization value.

Samuel Lee

tutor

#SocialImpactMeasurement#SocialImpactMeasurement#Change Theory#Theoryofchange #hksim #马会丰盛Social efficiency measurement plan#JCFullnessSIMCoachingScheme